Princeton European Fertility Project:
Definitions of Urban Areas

The following descriptions indicate the criteria used to produce separate data records for urban and rural populations in the Master File. Countries which are not shown in the following list do not have urban/rural breakdowns. The two-digit number preceding the country name is the country identifier found in columns 1-2 of the master file.

  • 03 Belgium - Formally defined city or urban areas (Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent and Liege) have separate data for the years 1880, 1900 and 1910, to separate those living in the city proper from those living in outlying rural districts. Blanks or zeroes appear in the data records for other years. Other areas have zeroes or blanks in the urban and rural data records for all years.
  • 04 Denmark (All series) - Official definitions of urban (Koebstaeder) and rural (Landistrikter) were used.
  • 06 Finland - Official definition, not exactly defined.
  • 08 Germany (Series 0) - For Prussia, in 1880, 1900, and 1933, urban included all cities with at least 20,000 population in 1880 and all legally defined cities with population under 20,000, excluding all legally defined rural communities. Other years and regions have zeroes or blanks in the urban and rural data records.
  • 13 Norway - Urban areas delineated according to official definitions in 1875 to 1930. Oslo (area 3) and Bergen (area 13) have no rural population. Hordaland Co. (S. Bergenhus) (area 12) has no urban population.
  • 16 Russia - Official definitions of urban and rural used at all dates, adjusted as decribed in appendix of Human Fertility in Russia since the 19th Century (Coale, Anderson, and Harm).
  • 19 Sweden - Official definitions used. Stockholm Stad (area 25) has no rural area.
  • 20 Switzerland - Official definition. Some cantons have either no urban or no rural populations at certain dates.
  • 24 Hungary (Series 0) - Official definition. A number of provinces have no urban areas. Fiume City (area 72) and Budapest (area 73) have no rural areas.
  • 26 Yugoslavia - Urban/rural data available only for for Yugoslavia-Serbia and only in 1900.
Note: In every case, if any urban/rural data are available for a country for any year, data records for urban and rural populations for all years will follow the data records for the total population for each area, not only the areas for which separate data are available. This is true even if an area is entirely urban or entirely rural.